Clubfoot is a congenital deformity, i.e. present at birth. It affects the foot and/or ankle. In patients with clubfoot, the bones, joints, blood vessels, and muscles in the foot are formed incorrectly. This results in either mild or severe deformities. Most notable is the `kidney shape' of the foot. It can affect one or both feet, more frequently the left. In about half of the cases, both feet are affected.
Clubfoot can occur by itself or it can be accompanied by other birth defects such as malformation syndromes or chromosomal syndromes.
There are three types of clubfoot:
- Calcaneal Valgus
There is an angling of the foot at the heel. When this occurs, the top of the foot looks as if it is bent to the side and the toes point up and out.
- Matatarusus Varus
In this the front of the foot is turned inwards.
- Talipes Equinovarus
Here the foot is turned inwards and down.
In clubfoot, each child is likely to have some of each of the following: Plantar flexion:
this refers to the twisting of the ankle which causes the heel to be drawn up. Cavus foot deformity:
this refers to the high arch of the foot. In some cases a high arch is very noticeable. In other cases, because of the angling of the foot, the height may be difficult to determine. In these cases, a crosswise crease on the sole of the foot may be a good indication. Varus:
this refers to the inversion of the heel which causes the front of the foot to turn inward Adduction of the forefoot:
this refers to amount the forefoot is pulled downward