Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

What is it?

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a respiratory illness that has recently been reported from Asia, North America and Europe. It is an atypical pneumonia of which the cause has not yet been determined. Due to the spread of SARS to several countries in a short period of time, emergency guidance has been issued for travellers and airlines.

What are the causes?

The cause of SARS has not been definitively identified. Recently, scientists had detected a previously unrecognised coronavirus in 2 patients with SARS. These findings are preliminary and do not provide conclusive evidence that coronavirus is the cause of SARS.

What are the symptoms?

The illness begins generally with a fever greater than 100.4°F (>38.0°C). The fever is sometimes associated with chills or other symptoms, including headache, malaise, and body aches. Some people also experience mild respiratory symptoms at the outset. After 3 to 7 days, one may develop a dry cough that might be accompanied by or progress to the point where insufficient oxygen is getting to the blood. In 10%-20% of cases, patients will require mechanical ventilation or breathing support using a machine.The incubation period for SARS is typically 2-7 days; however, isolated reports have suggested an incubation period as long as 10 days. high fever (>38 degree C) one or more respiratory symptoms including cough, shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing close contact with a person who has been diagnosed with SARS recent history of travel to areas reporting cases of SARS

How is the diagnosis made?

Although coronavirus has not been proven to be the cause of SARS, the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and its partners are working to develop a new test to look for evidence of coronavirus infection in patients with SARS.

What is the treatment?

Patients with SARS receive the same treatment that would be used for any patient with serious community acquired atypical pneumonia of unknown cause. Reported treatment regimens have included antibiotics to presumptively treat known bacterial agents of atypical pneumonia. Therapy also includes antiviral agents such as oseltamivir or ribavirin. Steroids have also been administered orally or intravenously to patients in combination with ribavirin and other antimicrobials.

What are the prevention?

It is recommended that patients with SARS be isolated with barrier nursing techniques and treated clinically. Any suspect cases should be reported to national health authorities.

DoctorNDTV Team

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