The bleeding may arise from the uterus, the cervix, the vagina or the ovaries. In the uterus the presence of fibroids or cancer cause excessive or irregular bleeding. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is an irregular heavy bleeding from a normal uterus, and occurs due to hormonal imbalances. Other uterine causes include molar pregnancy, double uterus, infection of the uterus (tuberculosis
) and pregnancy
relayed causes such as abortion
. An intrauterine copper device may be the cause if irregular bleeding.
Bleeding from the cervix may occur from erosions, inflammation (cervicitis), polyps or cancer
. Bleeding may arise from the vagina as in vaginal foreign bodies. Children tend to insert small objects, which stay in the vagina and cause infection and bleeding. In adults, a forgotten tampon may be the cause. Other vaginal sources of bleeding include infections, inflammation in the elderly (senile vaginitis
), and rarely, vaginal cancer.
Some hormone producing tumours of the ovaries can cause bleeding from the uterus. Bleeding may be less than normal in patients with hormonal imbalances, such as those that occur at around the time of menopause
. Infections such as tuberculosis, as well as some drugs (antipsychotic medicines) also may be associated with scanty blood flow.