Here's Everything You Need To Know About Male Infertility Diagnosis
Male infertility: Several factors can lead to infertility in males. Several tests are needed to be conducted to find the exact cause of infertility. Read here to know how male infertility is diagnosed.
Several environmental factors can affect fertility in men
- Multiple factors are responsible for infertility in men
- Male infertility diagnosis include several steps
- Stress can also affect fertility in males
According to studies, male infertility cases are on a rise in the previous years. It's predominantly due to the low sperm count or motility of sperm, abnormal shape of sperm or sometimes complete absence of it. Male infertility reduces the chances of getting pregnant in his female partner. It has been estimated that about 13 out of 100 couples can't get pregnant despite trying conceiving for at least a period of 12 months. Even male infertility is diagnosed after formal assessment and testing. Male infertility is also quite common in environments with high level of environmental pollution. Poor lifestyle, unhealthy diet, stress and alcohol consumption also increases the risk of infertility in males.
How is male infertility diagnosed?
The diagnosis begins with a full history and physical exam. Your infertility expert may also want to do blood work and semen tests.
History and Physical exam
This basically involves a lot of examining on your health, surgical histories, childhood illnesses, current health problems, or medications that might harm sperm production. Conditions like mumps, diabetes and use of steroids may affect fertility.
The doctor may also ask you questions about your body function during intercourse. The physical exam will examine whether the individual has problems in his penis, epididymis, vas deferens, and testicles.
Semen samples are obtained and then sent to a laboratory to measure the number of sperms present and look for any abnormalities in the shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm. In the lab, your semen will be examined to detect any sign of problem. In most cases, at least two semen analysis tests are done over a period of time to ensure accurate results. If there is no malfunction in the sperm, then doctor will suggest tests of female partner before starting the infertility procedures.
Testicular biopsy is done if the result of the semen analysis shows a very low number of sperm or no sperm. In this, a small incise is made in the scrotum and a small piece of tissue from each testicle is removed and studied under a microscope. This technique enables to find out the cause of infertility.
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What are the treatments?
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
It's one of the most-opted medical facilities by the people, who are unable to conceive naturally. It can help males as well as females who are dealing with infertility.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
The advent of ICSI has brought a major change in the treatment of severe male infertility. It allows infertile couples get pregnant. In this procedure, a single sperm is injected into the egg with a tiny needle. Then it's put into the female partner's uterus once the egg is fertilised. This procedure is also used if you have no sperm in the semen caused by a block or testicular failure that can't be fixed. Sperm may also be taken from the testicles or epididymis by surgery for this method.
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Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)
This technique is efficient in diagnosing the reason behind azoospermia (no sperm). It also gets enough tissue for sperm extraction.
(Dr. Aswati Nair, Fertility Consultant, Nova IVF)
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