World Cancer Day 2021: Here Are The 4 Most Common Cancers Found In Women
World Cancer Day 2021: Abnormal growth of cells in any part of the body leads to formation of tumour and further cancer. Here's a list of common cancers that can affect women.
World Cancer Day 2021: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer
- World Cancer Day is observed on 4 February each year
- The theme for World Cancer Day 2021 is 'I am and I will'
- Early detection plays a crucial role in increasing survival rates
World cancer day is observed on 4 February each year to spread awareness about this disease. It tries to initiate steps that can help in achieving a cancer-free world. The theme for the World Cancer Day 2021 is I am and I will. Lung, breast, colorectal, skin and stomach are some of the common cancers. Women alone are at a risk of number of cancers. Some of these are breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and other. On World Cancer Day 2021, here's a list of cancers that can affect women and how to prevent these.
World Cancer Day 2021: Cancers in women
1. Breast cancer
Those with a family history of breast cancer are at a higher risk. Early detection plays a crucial role in increasing survival rates of the women. Breast cancer screening plays a vital role in early diagnosis.
Annual screening with mammography and MRI starting at age 30 years is recommended for women who-
1. Are known or likely carries of a BRCA mutation
2. Have another high risk genetic syndrome (eg- Cowden syndrome, li fraumeni syndrome)
3. Have been treated with validation to the chest for Hodgkin disease
4. Have an approximately 20% - 25% or greater life risk of breast cancer based on specialized breast cancer estimation models.
5. Increased weight, smoking, alcohol is associated with increased risk of cancer because of estrogen storage in fat. Maintaining correct weight is a way forward to reduce risk.
2. Cervical cancer
The following are the recommendations for a woman at average risk
1. Women younger than 21 years should not be screened.
2. Screening for cervical cancer should began at 21 years of age. Women aged 21-29 years should receive cytology screening every three years. HPV testing should not be done in this age group.
3. For women aged 30-65 years, the preferred approach is to be screened every 5 years with both HPV and cytology testing. It is also acceptable to continue screening every 3 years with cytology alone.
4. Women should discontinue screening after age 65 years if they have had three consecutive negative cytology tests on two consecutive negative HPV tests within the 10 year period before ceasing screening, with most recent test occurring within past 5 years.
5. Women who have undergone a total hysterectomy for non-cancerous conditions do not need to undergo cervical cancer screening.
3. Endometrial Cancer Screening
There is insufficient evidence to recommend endometrial cancer screening. Women should be informed about the symptoms of endometrial cancer like vaginal bleeding and spotting after onset of menopause. Women at high risk ex-Lynch Syndrome should consider undergoing annual endometrial biopsy to evaluate endometrial histology beginning at the age of 35 years.
4. Ovarian Cancer Screening
Women with a known hereditary ovarian cancer syndrome such as BRCA1/2 mutations or HNPCC should have annual rectovaginal pelvic examination, CA 125 determinations and TVU until child bearing is completed or at least until age 35 years, at which time prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy is recommended.
(Dr. Kapil Kumar is the Director & Head of Surgical Oncology at Fortis Hospital, Shalimar Bagh)
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