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Fertility: Here Are The Most Common Causes Behind Infertility In Women & Men

The 8 most frequent reasons for infertility in men and women are covered in this article.

Fertility: Here Are The Most Common Causes Behind Infertility In Women & Men

Infertility affects around 812% of couples worldwide

Infertility is the inability to conceive a child through intercourse. Today, infertility is a common issue among couples worldwide. Infertility can affect both men and women due to various reasons. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infertility affects around 8–12% of couples worldwide. Here we are discussing the eight most common causes behind infertility in men and women.

8 Factors that cause infertility in women & men:

1. Age

As women age, their reproductive potential declines, and it becomes difficult for them to conceive. Women are born with a finite number of eggs, and every month they lose some eggs during their menstrual cycle. Once they reach 35 years of age, the number of eggs they carry  starts to decline faster. Men also experience a decrease in their sperm qualityas they age but as sperm formation happens continuously, the decline is not as significant as in women.

2. Hormonal Imbalances

Hormones play a crucial role in the reproductive system of both men and women. Disrupted hormonal balance in women can lead to ovulation problems, irregular menstrual cycle, andsubfertility. Men with hormonal imbalances may suffer from a low sperm count, erectile dysfunction, and decreased sex drive.

3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS is a hormonal disorder in women that causes an imbalanceof fertility hormones like FSH/LH with excess of male hormone, leading to ovulatory dusfunction, weight gain, excessive hair growth, and fertility issues.This all leads to, making it difficult to conceive.

4. Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a painful condition in which the endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus, mainly in the pelvic area. It causes severe pain during menstruation and can lead to infertility by affecting the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus.

5. Varicocele

A varicocele is a condition in men that causes swelling in the veins of the testicles, which increases the temperature of the testicles and affects sperm production. This condition can lead to low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and infertility.

6. Lifestyle Factors

Unhealthy lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, and obesity can lead to infertility. These factors can decrease fertility by damaging the reproductive organs, disrupting hormonal balance, and reducing the quality and quantity of sperm and eggs.

7. Damage to Reproductive Organs

Damage to the reproductive organs due to surgeries, infections, or injuries can also lead to infertility. In women, damage to the fallopian tubes and uterus can cause problems with egg fertilization and implantation. In men, damage to the testicles or prostate gland can lead to low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and infertility.

8. Consumption of tobacco and alcohol

According to research, smoking and using tobacco decrease male fertility and probably do so by lowering the quality of semen. By reducing testosterone, shrinking the testicles, making it difficult to get an erection, and slowing sperm motility, excessive alcohol use makes males less fertile. According to studies, smoking by women can disrupt ovulation and harm eggs, increasing their risk of genetic abnormalities that can cause miscarriage. 

In conclusion, infertility is a complex issue that can be caused by multiple factors. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of infertility to provide appropriate medical treatment. Many couples struggling with infertility can overcome it through good healthy lifestyle  and various fertility treatments, such as assisted reproductive technology (ART), surgical interventions, and medication. Early diagnosis and treatment can help many couples achieve their dream of parenthood.

Disclaimer: This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for a qualified medical opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. NDTV does not claim responsibility for this information.

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