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Smoking may trigger PMS

Young women who smoke are prone to develop premenstrual syndrome (PMS), especially symptoms like backaches, bloating, breast tenderness & acne.

Smoking may trigger PMS

Young women who smoke are prone to develop premenstrual syndrome (PMS), especially hormonally-related symptoms like backaches, bloating, breast tenderness, and acne. Up to 20% of women are known to have PMS, severe enough to affect their relationships and interfere with their normal activities. Previous studies suggest that smoking may alter levels of oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and other hormones, many of which may be involved in the development of PMS. Some studies have found that smokers have shorter and more irregular menstrual cycles than non-smokers. Smoking may also lower levels of vitamin D in the body, which also may increase a woman's risk of developing PMS. To further investigate the relationship between smoking and risk of PMS, researchers from America analysed data of a health study that followed 116,678 women. The researchers looked at a subset of women who were PMS-free during the first two years of the study, comparing 1,057 who did go on to develop PMS to 1,968 who did not. It was found that the women who were current smokers were twice as likely as non-smokers to report PMS within the next two to four years. The risk increased with the amount they smoked, and women who had picked up the habit in adolescence or young adulthood were at even greater risk; those who had begun smoking before turning fifteen years old, for example, were thrice as likely to develop PMS. These findings suggest that smoking by women, especially at a younger age, may markedly increase their risk of developing moderate to severe PMS, providing additional incentive for young women to give up the habit.
American Journal of Epidemiology
November 2008
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