Dermabrasion is a cosmetic medical procedure in, which the surface of the skin is removed by abrasion (sanding). It is used to remove sun-damaged skin and to remove or lessen scars and dark spots on the skin. The procedure is very painful and usually requires a general anaesthetic or twilight anaesthesia, in which the patient is still partly conscious. Afterward, the skin is very red and raw-looking, and it takes several months for the skin to regrow and heal. Dermabrasion is useful for scar removal when the scar is raised above the surrounding skin, but is less effective with sunken scars. Laser dermabrasion is much easier to control, much easier to gauge, and is practically bloodless compared to classic dermabrasion.
Microdermabrasion comes from the above mentioned technique dermabrasion. Microdermabrasion is a more natural skin care that is a gentler, less invasive technology for doing an exfoliation on the skin. The goal of microdermabrasion is to eliminate the superficial layer of the skin called the epidermis. If the surface of the abraded skin is touched, a roughness of the skin will be noticed. The roughness is keratinocytes, which are better hydrated than the surface corneocytes. Keratinocytes appear in the basal layer from the proliferation of keratinocyte stem cells. They are pushed up through the cells of the epidermis, experiencing gradual specialisation until they reach the stratum corneum where they form a layer of dead, flattened, strongly keratinized cells called squamous cells. This layer creates an efficient barrier to the entry of foreign matter and infectious elements into the body and reduces moisture loss.
Keratinocytes are shed and restored continuously from the stratum corneum. The time of transit from basal layer to shedding is generally one month. Corneocytes are cells derived from keratinocytes in the late stages of terminal specialisation of squamous epithelia. Microdermabrasion is done to eliminate some of the corneocytes. These cells are responsible for the impermeability of the skin. The minimising or elimination of scars, skin lesions, blotchiness and stretch marks from the skin can be an easy process with the use of skin exfoliation. The result depends on how well the procedure known as skin remodeling works. Results are optimal and fewer treatments are needed with more recent and/or superficial scars. Still, microdermabrasion can be used on scars that showed up during puberty or many years later.