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What are the dietary recommendations for diabetes and hypertension?

Q: My father is 58 years old and suffering from diabetes. He is constantly feeling thirsty, vomitish and having body ache with weakness. He is not eating anything properly and has lost 4kgs. His father too suffered from high blood pressure and diabetes. I want to know which type of diabetes is he suffering from? I want to know what his diet should be like and what should he eat for breakfast, lunch and dinner? Is it good to give him watermelon, apples, Jamuns during a day? Is there any limit to eating of fruits per day? As he is not eating food we are giving him fruits and milk? Is he allowed to eat cornflakes for breakfast? We got his blood tested and fasting blood sugar was 396.0 mgs% and post lunch was 410.0 mgs%. The urine report too showed the presence of sugar in the urine. For the last 8 years he is suffering from high blood pressure too. For high BP he is taking Minipress XL 2.5 mg and Tenoclor 50. The present blood pressure is 130/90. The last check up regarding high BP was done 3 years back. Thereafter there has been no visit to the doctor. He also has high uric acid for which he is taking Zyloric.

A:To keep his blood sugar under control you need to choose carbohydrate foods that are digested more slowly. Here’s a list of what you can include: Give him the following food items, everyday: - Freshly crushed raw garlic 3-4 gms a day - Raw onions 20-25 gms a day - Raw salads with lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, sprouts, radish, turnip, mustard, cucumber, etc. according to the season (100-125 gms a day) - Bran supplement (oat bran, wheat bran) 10 gms a day Gradually increase the proportion of the following foods in his diet: - Fresh seasonal fruits of the area. - Soybean, in some form or the other, i.e., tofu, tempeh, soy milk, nutrinuggets, soy powder, plain cooked soybeans or soybean sprouts. Include one of these in one meal on at least 4-5 days a week. - Carrot, spinach and all other vegetables which are yellow or orange in colour, or have green leaves high in chlorophyl. - Vegetable juices, not strained. - Sprouts-sprouts of mung and alfalfa are easy to make and are very nutritious. Reduce the intake of the following foods: - Non-vegetarian foods. Try to stop the intake of all red meats altogether, immediately and become a vegetarian. If he cannot become a pure vegetarian, then gradually reduce poultry and eggs so that he takes only low protein fish or seafood only on 1 or 2 days a week during the interim period. - Whole milk and its products. Take skimmed milk or up to 2% fat milk and their products instead. Processed cheeses must be replaces by low fat cottage cheeses. - Tea and coffee. Do not exceed 2 cups a day of conventional tea or coffee-decaffeinated, if possible. If you need more, try herbal teas. - White flour and its products. Replace these with whole grains, whole wheat or soya breads, unpolished rice etc. Use whole wheat bread instead of white bread. - Water Intake: flush his system by giving him water copiously. Fruits: - All fruit and vegetables are good. They are high in fibre, low in fat and packed with vitamins and minerals. - He can have 2-4 servings of fruit per day. A serving can be: . one medium- sized fresh fruit (apple, pear, banana, etc) · two small fruits (apricots, plums, peach, etc) · a cupful of berries or very small fruit (grapes, strawberries, etc) · a small bowlful of fruit salad · a large slice of a large fruit (melon, pineapple, etc) Avoid the watermelon. However keep in mind: - Choose whole fruits more often than juices. They have more fiber. - Choose fruits and fruit juices without added sweeteners or syrups. - Choose citrus fruit such as oranges,mosambi., guava, apple, peach, pears. Try to give fresh fruits rather than canned fruits, fruit juices or dried fruit. Spreading the fruit he eats through the day will avoid a sudden rise in blood glucose levels. Give him a wide variety of different fruits. Eating fruit and vegetables also helps to improve the overall balance of the diet. Fruit is the perfect snack between meals. To control hypertension: - Eating fewer processed foods will reduce sodium in the diet - Increase the potassium through fruits and vegetables - Eating a diet low in both saturated fats and total fat like meats, cheese, butter, poultry, snack - In general, vegetarian diets reduce blood pressure as they are higher in potassium, magnesium, and calcium. - Control his weight and increase physical activity - Eating less sodium will help. Avoid adding salt to foods at the table and use these 5 tips to reduce your salt intake: 1. Take stock of the sources of salt in his diet, such as restaurant meals, salt-based condiments, and convenience foods. Some of these are really loaded with salt. 2. Read the labels when shopping. Look for lower sodium in cereals, biscuits, pasta sauces, canned vegetables, or any foods with low-salt options. 3. If you think his meals are high in sodium, balance them by adding high-potassium foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. 4. Ask about salt added to food, especially at restaurants. Most restaurant chefs will omit salt when requested. 5. If he needs salt while cooking, add the salt at the end; you will need to add much less. The longer the food cooks, the more the salty flavour is muted and at the end, the final taste is on the top layer.

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