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Which immunological and genetic tests are required for repeated miscarriages?

Q: My 36 years old sister had repeated miscarriages. Now she has been advised to do immunological and genetic tests. What are the tests that need to be done? Also please give the names for tests for group B strep, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yeast and bacterial vaginosis (BV) as the doctor prescribed these. Please help.

A:Tests to be done:

  1. ACL (anti-cardiolipin antibodies) - IgG & IgM
  2. Lupus anticoagulant: APTT, dRVVT, KCT
  3. Karyotyping of husband and wife
  4. VDRL
  5. Transvaginal sonography: for uterine evaluation, cervical length
We normally don't get other tests done for infection as these have not been proven to be useful. In addition a hysteroscopy or a hysterosalpingography to rule out uterine malformations needs to be done by your treating doctor.

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