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diet sheets for Diabetics and Hypercholesterolemia

Q: Are there any diet sheets with Indian Menus available for Diabetics, people with Hypercholesterolemia? As an Internist who treats a large population of South Asians, I need this information to serve my patients better.

A:Diet plays an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The diet may be used alone or in combination with insulin injections or oral hypoglycaemic drugs.The diet plan of an individual is based on height, weight, age, sex, physical activity and nature of diabetes.
More of carbohydrate must be given as complex starches rather than simple sugars as they breakdown more slowly to release glucose in blood. The presence of fibre in complex carbohydrate like grains, vegetables and other starches slows the glucose absorption. One should emphasise more on the high fibre foods instead of high fibre supplements available in the market.
This diet plan is provided to you assuming that you are a non insulin dependent diabetic.
Early Morning: Tea (preferably without sugar)
Breakfast: Dalia (salted)/ Paneer on toast, Tea without sugar, Apple
Lunch: 2 chapatti, Channa curry / or any other whole dal, Beans sabzi / or any other sabzi (avoid potatoes) Curds / ghia raita, Salad
Evening tea: Tea
Dinner: Vegetable soup / tomato soup / chicken soup, 2 chapatti / missi roti (combining wheat flour with channa flour and soya flour), Palak paneer sabzi / paneer bhurji, Curds.
To remember:
- It is important to control the amount and time of food intake.
- Meals should not be missed.
- Consider the likes and dislikes of the patient.
- Try to substitute the craving for sweet by taking some fruit.
Foods to be avoided: Glucose, sugar, honey, all sweets, chocolates and candies.
Foods to be restricted: Potatoes, yam, arbi, sweet potatoes, mangoes, grapes, bananas, alcoholic beverages, fried foods, paranthas, poories, pakoras, mathris, deep fried foods, dry fruits, salad oils, cakes and pastries.
Foods to be used freely: Green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, cucumber. radish, soups, buttermilk, tea and coffee without sugar.

Diabetes (South Indian diet plan)
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Early Morning: 1 Cup Tea OR Coffee
Breakfast: 2 Idli OR 1 Dosa with Sambhar or tomato chutney (avoid coconut chutney), 1 Glass Milk OR 1 Cup Tea
Lunch: 2 Chapati OR Rice, 1 Katori sabzi (seasonal), 1 Katori Sambhar OR Daal, 1/2 Katori Curd OR Raita, Salad
Evening tea: 1 Cup Tea OR Coffee, 2 Biscuits
Dinner: 2 Dosa, 1 Katori Sambhar, Tomato chutney, Salad.
Hypercholesterolemia with Obesity
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Cholesterol levels can be kept in the normal range by eating a balanced diet and exercising regularly. It is important to eat the right foods (low cholesterol) to keep a healthy weight.
Avoid foods that contain a lot of cholesterol like meats and egg yellow. Eat less fat especially saturated fats, generally obtained from animal sources. Avoid fried foodstuff especially snacks and fast foods.
Eat more of fresh fruits, grains, vegetables and salads avoiding oil-based dressings, which can be substituted with vinegar or lemon-based dressings. Cook vegetables with herbs or spices instead of cooking oil or ghee. Use oils like sunflower, safflower, olive or corn oil. Avoid palm or coconut oil. Eat egg whites instead of whole eggs. Use low-fat dairy products like skimmed milk, low-fat yoghurt or cottage cheese instead of cream or processed cheese.
Early Morning: 1 Cup Tea OR Coffee
Breakfast: 1 Glass milk OR 1 Cup Tea, 2 Slice toast OR Sandwich with vegetables such as cucumber, tomato, cabbage; paneer, green chutney etc. (Avoid butter, cheese or sandwich dressing) OR 1 stuffed chapati (any vegetable except potato), 1 Fruit (avoid banana, cheeku, grapes and mango)
Lunch: 2 Chapati, 1 Katori daal OR paneer OR 2 pieces of chicken or fish, 1 Katori Sabzi (any seasonal vegetable), 1 Katori Curd OR Raita (Avoid potato and sweet raitas), Salad
Evening tea: 1 Cup tea OR Coffee, 2 Marie Biscuits OR Fruit chat OR Sprouts chat
Dinner: 1 Chapati, 1/2 Katori Rice (boiled), 1 Katori Daal, 1 Katori Sabzi, Salad

Here are some dietary guidelines that will help you to lose weight and select food for your diet plan:
- Include lots of fresh fruits and vegetables as salad in your diet.
- Dont skip any meal.
- Your dinner should be lighter than your lunch.
- Avoid fatty and fried foods such as pakoras, puris, paranthas, samosas, cutlets, etc.
- Restrict the intake of sweets including sugar, barfi, gulab jamuns, ras gullas, pastries, cakes etc.
- Take fresh lime instead of cokes and sodas.
- Drink plenty of water - 10 to 12 glasses per day.
- Work out an exercise routine for 20 minutes to begin with and then gradually increase the intensity and duration. This is very important as exercises can help you achieve balance between calories consumed and those utilised for daily activity.

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