World Heart Day 2019: What Are The Types Of Heart Diseases? Preventive Measures To Reduce The Risk
World Heart Day observed on every September 29 strives to inform people about the increasing number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases and the need to follow steps to reduce the risk. Here are the types of heart diseases, their symptoms and ways to prevent.
World heart day 2019: Regular exercise can help you keep your heart healthy
- Cardiovascular diseases are affecting a huge population
- Some preventive measures can help you reduce the risk of heart disease
- Do not smoke to preserve your heart health
World Heart Day observed on every September 29, tries to create awareness about various steps which can help in promoting heart health. This day strives to inform people about the increasing number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases and the need to follow steps to reduce the risk. Heart disease encompasses a range of conditions which tend to take a toll on your heart. There are different types of heart disease with various symptoms and treatment options. In the case of some people, lifestyle modifications and medications prescribed by the doctors can be helpful, whereas, others may have to undergo surgery to tackle the condition. Here are the types of heart disease and ways to prevent them.
Types of heart diseases
1. Cardiomyopathy: This causes the heart muscle to become enlarged, thick or rigid. The symptoms are fatigue, dizziness and swelling of the legs.
2. Arrhythmia: It can be described as heart rhythm abnormality which can become fatal. Slow heartbeat, chest pain, breathlessness, light-headedness and dizziness are the signs.
3. Coronary artery disease: One may suffer from it due to plaque build-up in the arteries of the heart. Moreover, it can also be called as ischemic heart disease. The signs are pain in chest, burning sensation, squeezing and tightness.
4. Congenital heart defects: Can be described as heart irregularities which are present by birth itself (heart valve and blood vessel defects). The symptoms in a newborn baby are chest pain, feeding difficulties, low birth weight, and troubled breathing. Other symptoms which may develop over the years are fainting, swelling, fatigue, and dizziness.
5. Atherosclerosis: This is a hardening of the arteries owing to the plaque build-up around the artery wall. The signs include difficulty in breathing, weakness, a headache, and facial numbness.
6. Heart infections: These occur when the bacteria, viruses or parasites reach your heart. The types of heart infections are pericarditis which is an inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac which tends to surround one's heart). Endocarditis is an infection of the heart valve of the inner lining, and myocarditis can be described as an inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium).
7. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): One may suffer from it when one's blood flow decreases or tends to stop to a part of the heart, and damages the heart muscle. The symptoms are fatigue, shortness of breath, nausea, sudden dizziness, and cold sweat.
Preventive measures to keep your heart healthy
Are you aware? Heart disease like defects cannot be prevented. But, certain types of heart disease like a heart attack can be prevented with lifestyle changes.
1. Say no to smoking
Do you smoke regularly? Well, you have to stop doing so. Quitting smoking can do the trick here as smoking damages the lining of the arteries. Moreover, there is also a build-up of fatty material atheroma which narrows the artery and causes a heart attack.
2. Exercise regularly
Staying physically fit can improve the functioning of your heart. Opting for cycling, walking, aerobics, swimming, and jogging can be a good idea. This can help pump more blood with each heartbeat, and also deliver oxygen to one's body. This will enable your body to function properly, and also help you maintain optimum weight.
3. Eat healthy fats
Get your good fats from veggies, nuts, seeds, and fish which can cut down your risk of heart disease, lower your bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol. Furthermore, limit your salt and alcohol intake.
4. Don't comprise on your sleep
During the normal sleep one's blood pressure goes down. And lack of sleep means that the blood pressure may remain high for a longer period of time, and can increase your risk of heart disease or a heart attack.
(Dr. Ravi Gupta, Cardiologist, Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai Central)
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