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How is it diagnosed?

Written by : DoctorNDTV Team

During the physical examination, the doctor may check the size and consistency of the testicles. The doctor may also measure levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone hormones.

Chromosomal evaluations and testing for Y-chromosome abnormalities can reveal a genetic basis for the absence of sperm. This may be the case in up to 10 percent of men with azoospermia.

An examination of the scrotum and epididymis may reveal signs of scarring from an old infection or congenital absence of the vas deferens (CAVD), the tube that connects the testicle to the ejaculatory ducts. CAVD is not all that rare; it is frequently seen in men who carry the cystic fibrosis (CF) genetic abnormality but do not have the disease.

A rectal examination determines whether there is prostate tenderness, which may imply scarring and blockage of the ejaculatory stream. If the ejaculate volume is low, the doctor will perform an ultrasound examination to look for a complete obstruction of the ejaculatory ducts. Finally, a biopsy of the testicle may indicate normal sperm production and confirm the diagnosis of blockage in the epididymis, vas deferens or ejaculatory ducts.

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